The term spirituality (from the Latin spiritus, spirit), depends on the doctrine, philosophical school or ideology that treats it, as well as on the context in which it is used.
In a broad sense, it means the spiritual condition. In this sense, and referring to a person, it refers to a mainly moral, psychic or cultural disposition that possesses who tends to investigate and develop the characteristics of his spirit. This decision usually implies the intention to experience special states of well-being, such as salvation or liberation. It is also related to the practice of virtue. In a sense it is possible to speak of spiritual practices without being specifically under what we usually consider an organized religion, although generally they do not stop being traditional practices.
In the West, the term was usually associated with religious doctrines and practices, especially in the perspective of the relationship between the human being and a higher being (God), as well as with the doctrines related to the salvation of the soul, although it has now expanded much use, and these are not the only ways in which the term is used. It is also said of styles or forms of life that include perspectives related to the spiritual realm and its practices, seeking, for example, liberation. Other different approaches are also possible: (initiation, rite).
Likewise, it can be understood without any reference to any higher or external being to the human being, being used the term to refer to an “atheistic spirituality“, or “without God”. Some philosophical points of view, use the term to make reference to the opposition between matter and spirit, or between interiority and exteriority.
However, on the contrary, the philosophical stance of practitioners of Zen Buddhism conceives the “unity” of opposites:
A philosopher, Nishida Kitaro (…) also gave in to Zen practice, from which he distilled his philosophical conception of the “unity” of opposites (space and time, spirit and matter, self-consciousness and objective consciousness, individual and world ).
Michiko Yusa, Religions of Japan, 2006.
Sometimes also, in the literary scope, the term obeys only aesthetic and stylistic aspects.