The Inca Empire or Tahuantinsuyo (from Quechua Tawantin Suyu, ‘the four divisions’) was a pre-Columbian state located in South America. It flourished in the Andean zone of the subcontinent between the XV and XVI centuries, as a result of the apogee of the Inca civilization. It covered about 2 million km² between the Pacific Ocean and the Amazon jungle, from the vicinity of San Juan de Pasto in the north to the Maule River in the south.
The Tahuantinsuyo was the most extensive empire that had any state of pre-Columbian America. The mountain range of Los Andes, the backbone of South America, limits the north and northwest of Argentina, physically and politically. Bolivia, southern Peru and northern Chile settle on those lands, arid, inhospitable, and cold. The vast area, up to the high lands of Ecuador, was part of the prosperous Inca Empire, in the era before the discovery of the New Continent.
This great pre-Columbian society called Tahuantinsuyo made its way to Salta, Tucumán, and Santiago del Estero, spreading their eating habits and was the last and best-known agrarian community residing in the highlands of the Andes. The vast territory was of great complexity, climatic topographical. These people knew how to master the environment for the intelligent management of natural resources, so the arid lands became extensions of intensive agricultural production. As a predominantly agricultural society developed in the Andes, the Incas knew how to make the most of the land, overcoming the adversities of the Andean terrain and the inclement weather.
The adaptation of new techniques previously used in different parts, allowed the Incas to organize the production of various products, from the coast, the highlands and the jungle, and to redistribute to the villages that do not have access to other regions. The technological achievements, achieved at the agricultural level, would not have been possible without the work force that was in a section of the Inca, as well as the red vial that allows storing properly the resources and harvested and to distribute them by all their territory.
The agricultural calendar of the Incas began in August when the fields were planted for maize in September. During the next two months, the fields were irrigated using different hydraulic systems. In December the sowing of the potatoes, the goose and the legumes were done. During the month of January, with heavy and frequent rains, the fields are weeded, while in February-March, while the maize was growing and maturing, it was to defend the harvest of birds and other animals. The months of April-May were the happiest, since it was time to collect and store the different agricultural products.), Beans and cassava.