Between 1200 and 500 BC large ceremonial centers were built, built by the communities of the Andes and the coast. In these places rituals are organized and around which the social life of the communities whose members live scattered on several floors and ecological floors are articulated. From these ceremonial centers are shared beliefs and ways of understanding the world and social life are organized; It was also very important for the government of the community. The constant increase of the population in this time allowed having the sufficient work force for the construction of the great centers and communitarian spaces.
The characteristics that stand out these ceremonial centers are:
- They stood out in the landscape because of their size and appearance.
- It consisted of one or several platforms around large spaces that functioned as squares. They were the places where ceremonies were held that congregated the majority of the communities and that invested in other regions.
- They had reserved enclosures and corridors inside only people (priests, governors) could access.
- They were constructed with adobe and stones (according to the availability of materials in each area) and then decorated profusely with images.
• The buildings reached monumental sizes.
They were built by several generations and in most cases covered older buildings. The ceremonial centers of the Andes maintained communication and formed a great network of which Chavín de Huantar was part.
It is believed that it extended from the south of Ecuador to the area of Ica and Ayacucho. In this network were exchanged shells and Strombus snails from Ecuador, Piura and Tumbes mollusks, Cajamarca gold, Ayacucho obsidian and possibly animals and plants of the Amazon forest.
The communities shared information and exchanged fine ceramics and textiles, which were the means in which they expressed their beliefs. The pottery was extraordinary. It is usually monochrome, sometimes decorated with red and black-silver colors. With added a series of points.
Among the most represented beings are: zoomorphic beings (felines, monkeys, lizards, snakes and birds), phytomorphs (tubers) and anthropomorphs.
The most used colors were: gray, brown and black.
According to the use, you can distinguish two types of pottery: • Utilitarian ceramics: for the common use of the people of the town.
- Ceremonial ceramics: for ritual practices. Also according to the temporal development, there are two types:
- Season rocks. Its characteristics are: globular form, flat base, stirrup handle ending in peak, in addition to vessels and bowls up to 50 cm in diameter.
- Season offerings. In this phase the neck (neck) are thinner and its shape is flared.
- Resaltaban en el paisaje por su tamaño y vistosidad.
- Estaba compuesta por una o varias plataformas alrededor de amplios espacios que funcionaban como plazas. Eran los lugares donde se realizaban ceremonias que congregaban a la mayoría de las comunidades e invitados que llegaban de otras regiones.
- Tenían recintos reservados y corredores adonde solo algunas personas (sacerdotes, gobernadores) podían acceder.
- Fueron construidos con adobe o piedras (de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de materiales en cada zona) y luego decorados profusamente con imágenes.
- Los edificios alcanzaron tamaños monumentales. Fueron construidos por varias generaciones y en la mayoría de los casos cubrieron edificios más antiguos.
- Cerámica utilitaria: para el uso común de la gente del pueblo.
- Cerámica ceremonial: para las prácticas rituales.
- Época rocas. Cuyas características son: forma globular, base plana, asa estribo terminando en pico, además de vasijas y tazones de hasta 50 cm de diámetro.
- Época ofrendas. En esta fase los golletes (cuellos) son más delgados y su forma es acampanada.